Books in the Public Domain

This is some news to be thankful about, and possibly to ring in the new year!  A lot of books are now entering the public domain here in the U.S.  For 20 years this process was frozen thanks to the Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 (also known as the Mickey Mouse Protection Act and Sonny Bono Act).

The process of new books coming into copyright began in January 2019, for titles with a publication year of 1923.   And this coming January we’ll get another installment for titles published in 1924.

The HathiTrust public domain content, an archive of publicly available books numbering in the millions, has been fairly static for a number of years.  However, the number of public domain titles in HathiTrust have increased by 11% (!) and the number of 1923 titles in the public domain jumped by 313%.  Keep in mind that this applies to music and songs too!  In fact, here is a list of holiday carols that shows which songs are in the public domain. Be sure to check this if you’re making any social videos featuring holiday music.

This appears to be a clear sign of what we have to look forward to in coming years!


A “New” Chant for Christmastide

Written by Doreen Simonsen
Humanities and Fine Arts Librarian

Image Comparing 15th Century Chant Manuscripts

Somewhere in Europe in the 15th century, a choir sang an Alleluia followed by an Offertory on the Feast of the Holy Innocents on December 28th. A page from a book that contained parts of these songs was discovered last summer in the Vault of the Mark O. Hatfield Library. We do not know who donated this manuscript page to the library, but through the help of faculty members in the Music and Classical Studies Depts. at Willamette University, and elsewhere, we have been able to reveal its secrets and show how it relates to the holiday season.

Image of Medieval & Renaissance Manuscripts

Psalter
France, Paris, between 1495 and 1498
MS M.934 fol. 141r
Morgan Library and Museum

This large sheet of vellum (parchment prepared from animal skin) is 20 ⅞ inches high by 15 ⅔ inches wide and has neumatic (plainsong) notation on a four-line staff with texts in Latin. Chants are written in neumes, which are notes sung on a single syllable.

There is a large Illuminated initial in lower left-hand corner of second page. (To see how this page and illumination was created, please watch this excellent video, Making Manuscripts, from the Getty Museum.) The reason for the large size of this page was that it was meant to be read by several members of a choir at one time. The expense of creating manuscript books meant that it would be more economical to create one large book for several people to use rather than several smaller books for each person in the choir to hold.

Here is an illustration from a Psalter (A book of Psalms) showing a group of clerics singing from a large book with musical notation, similar in size and format to our manuscript.

Image of manuscript fragmentIdentifying the Texts:
Professors Robert Chenault and Ortwin Knorr of Willamette University’s Department of Classical Studies identified the texts found on these two pages.

This first page (or recto page) contains the following words and word fragments:
…tis eius; laudate eum in firmamen-

And the second page (or verso page) contains the rest of the phrase:
to virtutis eius.

These phrases combine to form the end of this Bible Verse:
Alleluia. Laudate Dominum in sanctis eius; laudate eum in firmamento virtutis eius.

 

 

Image of manuscript fragmentPsalm 150, Verse 1 (King James Version) Praise ye the Lord. Praise God in his sanctuary: praise him in the firmament of his power.

At the bottom of the second (verso) page, they identified the words: Anima no- which another scholar identified as belonging to this verse:

Anima nostra sicut passer erepta est de laqueo venantium; laqueus contritus est, et nos liberati
sumus.

Psalm 123, Verse 7 (King James Version) Our soul is escaped as a bird out of the snare of the fowlers: the snare is broken, and we are escaped. The two texts are separated by a red abbreviation of the word Offertory.

Identifying the Music
Professor Hector Aguëro of the Music Department at Willamette University shared images of our manuscript with his colleague Professor Richard Robbins, Director of Choral Activities at the University of Minnesota-Duluth and a scholar of choral music, especially Italian sacred music of the early Baroque.

Dr. Robbins identified our manuscript as part of a Missal, which is a book containing texts used in the Catholic Mass throughout the year. Robbins identified the first text and melody as the end of an alleluia verse, specifically Laudate Deum, (mode IV). The second melody is an offertory on the text Anima Nostra (mode II).

Both of these chants can be found in the Liber Usualis, a book of commonly used Gregorian chants in the Catholic tradition.

Image of Alleluia Chant

The notation on the library’s manuscript starts at the red line in the Alleluia above, and it ends at the red line in the Offertory Anima No|stra below.

Image of Anima Nostra Chant

You can hear a performance and follow the texts of both chants here:

Alleluia, Laudate Deum
Offertory: Anima Nostra

Dr. Robbins noted that if our manuscript was truly from the 15th century, is would have been written long before the Council of Trent (1545–63) codified the Catholic Mass and the order of the chants. If the library’s chant manuscript is actually from the 15 th century, this could explain the variation between the text of the Laudete Deum in our manuscript and that, which is found in the Liber Usualis. There was a great deal of variety in Missals before the Council of Trent, so one cannot be sure when these melodies were used during the liturgical year. However, according to Dr. Robbins, these tunes match the tunes that appear in the Holy Innocents / Ephiphanytide sections in Post-Trent Missals.

Ornate illuminated letter D shows Jesus riding Donkey colt

Dr. Robbins also pointed out that the illuminated letter A is ornate, which would have also been more appropriate for a Christmas use. The fancy illuminated letter A is probably also the reason we only have just one sheet from this missal or gradual. Graduals were the pages in missals that contained musical notation. These pages could contain ornate decorations and for this reason, they were frequently removed from missals and treated as single artworks. Here you can see similar gradual pages from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. And this page shows the entry of Jesus into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, all within the large initial D.

Teaching with a 15th Century Manuscript
The best thing about discovering this “new” manuscript in the vault was being able to share it with the students and faculty of Willamette University. In September 2019, as part of his Music History I course Professor Aguëro had his Music History students transcribe the music written on the library’s Chant manuscript. Here you can see them displaying their work. It was such a delight to have students work with a manuscript from the library’s Rare Books Collection.

Image of Professor Professor Aguëro and his Music History I class

From left to right: Ethan Frank, Matt Elcombe, Professor Aguero, Sam Strawbridge, Kate Grobey, and Sophie Gourlay

Acknowledgments

Many thanks to Professors Robert Chenault and Ortwin Knorr of the Department of Classical Studies and Professor Hector Aguëro of the Department of Music at Willamette University, and especially to Professor Richard Robbins Director of Choral Activities at the University of Minnesota-Duluth. Their combined scholarship helped us explicate the text and illuminate the value and beauty of this seasonal manuscript.

 

Bibliography

Abbey of Solesmes. The Liber Usualis 1961. Internet Archive, http://archive.org/details/TheLiberUsualis1961. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Anima Nostra Sicut Passer Erepta Est. YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2UrXb2QUSsI. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

“Bartolomeo Di Domenico Di Guido | Manuscript Leaf with Entry into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday in an Initial D, from a Gradual | Italian | The Met.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art, https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/469046. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Chant Manuscript, ca. 15th Century. https://libmedia.willamette.edu/commons/item/id/163. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Council of Trent. Sacrosancti et œcumenici Concillii Tridentini Pavlo III, Ivlio III, et Pio IV, PP. MM. celebrati canones et decreta. Apud Cornab Egmond et Socios, 1644.

“Council of Trent | Definition, Summary, Significance, Results, & Facts.” Encyclopedia Britannicahttps://www.britannica.com/event/Council-of-Trent. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Gregorian Chant Notation. http://www.lphrc.org/Chant. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Laudate Deum – Gregorian Chant, Catholic Hymns. YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kaVnBFhiwqU. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Making Manuscripts. YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nuNfdHNTv9o&feature=youtu.be. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019.

Psalter, MS M.934 Fol. 141r – Images from Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts – The Morgan
Library & Museum. http://ica.themorgan.org/manuscript/page/120/77003. Accessed 27 Nov. 2019

Robbins, Richard. “Re: Newly discovered 15th c. Chant manuscript.” Received by Hector Aguero, 22 Aug. 2019.


Home Sweet Home

During this time of year when holidays abound, our thoughts often turn to “going home.” The concept of home is a powerful one but “home” means many different things to different people.  For some, it is a cozy place where they feel the most comfortable just being who they are.  In the winter, perhaps it is a house with a fire in the fireplace, a friendly lap kitty, a cup of hot cocoa, and a good book.  Or maybe “home” has more to do with the people that live there—family or friends or both! In any event, “home” must resonate with a lot of us or there wouldn’t be all those pithy sayings about the notion of home such as:

 

East, west, home’s best.

Hearth and home.

Home is where the heart is.

Make yourself at home.

There is no place like home.

Welcome home.

 

Whatever home means to you, here’s hoping your home is a happy one!  And while we’re on the subject of “home,” why not take a look at our WU Reads Reading Guide for a selection of home-related books available in the library?


Finals Week: Extended Study Hours

The Hatfield Library will be providing extended hours for final exams this fall. Branches on snow.

Also, don’t forget about the free cookies provided by Bon Appetit and coffee provided by the library…usually the cookies are made available after 10 p.m. Cookies will be available on Dec. 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th each night until they run out.

These are the hours for the end of the term:

Friday, Dec. 6 — 7:45 a.m. – 1 a.m.
Saturday, Dec. 7 — 9 a.m. – 1 a.m.
Sunday, Dec. 8 — 9 a.m. – 3 a.m.
Monday, Dec. 9 – Thursday, Dec. 12 — 7:45 a.m. – 3 a.m.
Friday, Dec. 13 — 7:45 a.m. – 1 a.m.
Saturday, Dec. 14 — 9 a.m. – 7 p.m.
Sunday, Dec. 15 — CLOSED

Winter break begins on Monday, Dec. 16. During the break, the library will be open Monday-Friday from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. and closed on the weekends. Also, the library (and the rest of campus) will be closed from Dec. 23 through Jan. 5. Regular hours resume on Jan. 21.


It’s a Winter Wonderland at the WU Archives

‘Tis the Season to share some wintery materials from the Willamette Archives and Special Collections! Our collections include many unique and fun materials that reflect a variety of winter and holiday traditions. The Archives crew have prepared three images to warm your hearts during these chilly days and long nights!

Blue Christmas invitation Holiday parties are a fantastic way to celebrate this chilly season – and an invitation to a Tom Cramer Christmas party is a coveted item! Tom Cramer, a nationally known Oregon artist, is famous not only for his beautiful paintings and wood carvings but also for his epic parties. The Tom Cramer papers include several of his Christmas party invitations, each designed and drawn by Cramer. This collection is part of the Pacific Northwest Artists Archive and is open for research.

Polar bear water Does the arrival of December have you yearning for snow? Or perhaps you’re looking for some winter fashion inspiration? The Chuck Williams Collection, which will be open for research in early 2020, has you covered on both fronts. Williams’ extensive research materials on national parks and environmental issues offer a wealth of images and information to get you through the winter months.

Star trees with lights While the beloved Star Trees on Willamette’s campus brings joy to students, staff, faculty, and Salem citizens all year long, during the holiday season they seem to shine even brighter — both literally and figuratively. Planted in 1942 to commemorate Willamette’s centennial year, the Star Trees (five Sequoiadendron giganteums) twinkle during the month of December when they are strung with lights. This photograph from December 7, 1997, captures the Start Tree Lighting Ceremony festivities. This year the Star Tree Lighting & Holiday Celebration ceremony takes place on Wednesday, December 4th. Be sure to join the fun!


Salvage Collage: A Sort of Magic

The new exhibit in the freestanding cases on the second floor of the library is courtesy of Dayna Collins, a former Hatfield Library staffer.  In this exhibit, Dayna has taken discarded books and breathed new life into them by creating wonderful collage pieces using different parts of the books. The exhibit includes books in various stages of deconstruction as well as finished art works. The exhibit will run through January 20, 2020.

 

Dayna Collins artist’s statement:

Dayna Collins has always loved old books. She hyperventilates at the sight of books which are stained, defaced, torn or marked up. She rips battered books apart, reclaiming their faded fragments, and creates collages using only materials she has excavated. Dayna’s mixed media pieces reflect the passage of time, repurposing the scraps that are worn and weathered, transforming the aged and tattered pieces into something unexpected and beautiful, celebrating their fragile decay.

Dayna J. Collins
www.alleyartstudio.com


Tree of Giving Book Drive

Our 15th annual Tree of Giving will take place Nov 18th through Dec 20th.  We’re asking for you help to change the lives of children by donating new or slightly used children’s books for Washington Elementary School. Clothing donations such as hats, gloves and scarves are also welcome.

Books can literally change the life of child.  They help develop literacy skills, inspire imagination and creativity, increase critical thinking skills, bridge language gaps for bilingual students, and so much more!  These are just a few of the books on the school library wish list:

 

– Disney books in Spanish (e.g. Disney Collection of StoriesAladdinLion KingToy Story)

– Anything with unicorns (e.g. Keepers of the Lost Cities)

– Puppies and kitten books (in Spanish)

– Where’s Waldo (or other search & find books)

– Weird But True

– Lego books (themed & how-to-build)

– National Geographic Fact Books and Almanacs

– STEAM Books (ScienceTechnologyEngineeringArchitectureMathematics)

– Language Books (FrenchRussianSign Language, etc.)

– Picture Books in Russian and Spanish

 

For additional info, visit:  https://libguides.willamette.edu/tree-of-giving.

Please drop donations off at the Hatfield and Law Libraries, Willamette Store, and Bistro.  Questions and comments can be directed to John Repplinger (jrepplin@willamette.edu).  Thank you for your support!

 

Tree of Giving book drive poster


Salvage Collage: A Sort of Magic

Image of artwork with children skatingThere is a new exhibit in the freestanding cases on the second floor of the Mark O. Hatfield Library courtesy of Dayna Collins, former Hatfield Library staffer.  In this exhibit, Collins has taken discarded books and breathed new life into them by creating wonderful collage pieces using different parts of the books. The exhibit includes books in various stages of deconstruction as well as finished art works. Below is Collins’ artist statement regarding the display:

Dayna Collins has always loved old books. She hyperventilates at the sight of books which are stained, defaced, torn or marked up. She rips battered books apart, reclaiming their faded fragments, and creates collages using only materials she has excavated. Dayna’s mixed media pieces reflect the passage of time, repurposing the scraps that are worn and weathered, transforming the aged and tattered pieces into something unexpected and beautiful, celebrating their fragile decay.

For more information on artist Dayna Collins, visit her website.  “Salvage Collage: A Sort of Magic” will run through January 20, 2020.


Faculty Colloquium: Luke Ettinger

Please join us on Friday, November 22nd, at 3 p.m. in Ford 102 for our eighth Faculty Colloquium of this semester.

Presenter: Luke Ettinger, Assistant Professor of Exercise and Health ScienceLuke Ettinger

Title: “Lost in Space; an Exploration into Sense of Self”

Abstract: Proprioception (proprio: own, perception: awareness) in the periphery describes our ability to locate limb position in space in the absence of visual feedback. This presentation will describe the biomechanical analysis performed on clinical populations who demonstrate movement disorders using language that is easily digestible to attendees of all backgrounds. Here, my goal is to convey the work my student collaborators and I have accomplished over the past 4 years at Willamette and to describe the trajectory of our future work.

Students are welcome and coffee and treats will be provided. We look forward to seeing you there.

Bill Kelm and Stephen Patterson
Faculty Colloquium Coordinators


The Northwest Collection

Guest post by Carol Drost, Associate University Librarian for Technical Services.

The Northwest Collection was established in 1997 through a gift from Nancy B. Hunt and consisted of materials collected by her husband, Kenneth J. Hunt. Kenneth was a Willamette alum who graduated in 1942 with a degree in sociology. Throughout his life, he collected books, pamphlets, and periodicals that focused on Oregon or the Pacific Northwest as their subject matter.

Ladd & Bush QuarterlyThe majority of these titles are early and mid-20th century local historical accounts of Oregon towns and institutions, autobiographies, and fiction and poetry. Many of the books are signed by the author.

The Hatfield Library continues to add materials to this collection, building upon the rich foundation that Kenneth Hunt established. The library acquires not only recently published titles, such as Standing Tall: the Lifeway of Kathryn Jones Harrison, but also historical titles such as Ken Kesey’s Spit in the Ocean series, which was published in the 1970s. 

The materials found in the Northwest Collection can be located through the library’s online catalog, and are in a closed stack location. All library users are welcome to use the materials by appointment, from 9-4, Monday through Friday. Contact a reference librarian for further assistance.


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